One: Session Seven
contain certain words that act as "sign posts." Just as road
signs tell motorists when to turn, when to stop, which way to
go, etc., "indicator words" tell the reader the direction that
an argument is taking. We'll start with the most basic of these
men are mortal.
Socrates is a man.
Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
- Notice the word "therefore." It is known as
a conclusion indicator.
It signals that what follows (Socrates is mortal) is a conclusion.
- Here is a list of other words/phrases that
are common conclusion indicators:
- It follows that . . .
- We may conclude that . . .
- This proves that . . .
- This shows that . . .
- Thus . . .
- Hence, . . .
- Accordingly, . . .
- Consequently, . . .
- With conclusion indicators, the conclusion to the right of the indicator.
- Notice that the words to the left of the conclusion indicator
will be a premise.
- Example: (Premise) It is very cold today. Hence, (Conclusion)
we should not go on a picnic.
- The classic premise indicator is
"because." The word indicates that support is being given for
some other statement (which is probably the conclusion).
- Here is a list of other words/phrases that are common premise
- Since . . .
- For . . .
- In view of . . .
- This is implied by . . .
- Given . . .
- For the reason that . . .
- With premise indicators, the premise is to the right of
- Notice that the words to the left of
the premise indicator will be a conclusion.
- Example: (Conclusion) We should not go on a picnic today,
because (Premise) it is too cold.