Four: Session Six
- Every claim is either true or false. It doesn't matter if
you agree with a claim and it doesn't matter if you know whether
it's true or false. It also doesn't matter if other people disagree
about the claim.
- Truth: A
claim is true if and only if it corresponds with reality.
- "Reality" covers
not only the material world, but also the metaphysical, moral,
and ideological world. Take for instance "justice." You
can't go out to the store and get one, but "justice" is
still real. We can make claims that are true about justice. For
instance, if an innocent man goes to jail for a crime he didn't
commit, while the real criminal got away, we can truthfully say, "Justice
- It isn't always easy to see whether the claim is true or false.
That's what we're trying to discover when we reason. Before we
reason we know one thing for sure; the claim that we're reasoning
about IS true or false. Not both. Not neither.
- Law of Identity: If
a claim is true, then it is true.
- Law of the Excluded Middle: Every
claim is either true or false.
- Law of Non-Contradiction: No
claim can be true and false at the same time.