Lecture Notes.


Elements of Thought: Implications

  • Implications are conclusions which are given by the sender.
  • The reasons in an argument are intended to lead to an implication.
  • For example:
  • All men are mortal.
    Socrates is a man.
    Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
    The first two sentences (the premises or reasons) imply or lead to the conclusion, "Socrates is mortal."
  • NOTE: Implications can be explicit or implicit. A frequent error is to think they must be unstated.


  • The difference between implying and inferring is who is doing it. Deliverers imply. Receivers infer.
  • For a clearer explanation, see the next page.


  • Regarding implications;
  • Determine where the evidence leads.
  • Be careful to avoid unwarranted assumptions.
  • Consider the further implications as discussed in the next point. . .
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