Lecture Notes.

Module One: Session Four

Critical Thinking Fundamentals: Logic

In 1724 Isaac Watts, D.D. gave this short definition; "Logic or the right use of reason in the inquiry after truth with a variety of rules to guard against error in the affairs of religion and human life, as well as in the sciences."1

Isaac Watts' Picture
  • It will be easier to think of logic as any systematic method used to figure something out.
    This course deals with two broad categories of logic.

  • Informal Logic: Dr. Paul's definition emphasizes this. One must confront their attitude, their psychological blocks, and their environment. How do these things influence one's ability to reason? Informal logic also deals with parts of reasoning pertaining to content. For instance, it is important to evaluate the rhetorical devices which communicators use to manipulate us?

  • Formal Logic: The structure of language (the grammar) has an influence on the degree of certainty with which an inference can be drawn. Formal logic deals with the form or structure of an argument.

    1. Watts, Isaac, Logic (Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria, 1996), pp. 4-6.

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